Artificial intelligence

AI is an umbrella term that is frequently used but often misunderstood. It is also a term that many people are reluctant to use, in part because past AI revolutions had been vastly overhyped. Frequently, AI terms are categorized by their capabilities:

  • Type I—Reactive AI: This is one of the most common and basic types of AI. It performs very well in the specific field that it is trained in. IBM’s Deep Blue is an instance of this AI type.
  • Type II—Limited Memory AI: In this type of AI, the limited memory refers to the limited retention time of memory. Think of it like the short-term working memory in a human. This is the type of AI employed in autonomous vehicles, as the data stored provides a reference point against which it can control.
  • Type III—Theory of Mind AI: Reflecting what cognitive scientists refer to as a “theory of mind,” this type of AI cannot only form representations regarding what it senses, but it can also recognize that other entities, such as people, will have their own contrasting representations.
  • Type IV—Self-Aware AI: This is an extension of Type III AI to the point that it is self-aware. The android Commander Data from Star Trek: The Next Generation, could be considered an example of this AI type.

The internet of things, or IoT, is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction